Angioplasty

What is Angioplasty?

Angioplasty is also called Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is a procedure to widen or unblock an artery using a small inflatable balloon.

A PCI is used to treat the symptoms of coronary artery disease, which is narrowing of the coronary arteries (blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with oxygen).

What are the benefits of angioplasty?

Having angioplasty or a PCI to widen or unblock an artery should improve the flow of blood without you having to have open heart surgery.

The main benefit is to reduce angina. A PCI may also improve your breathing if you have breathlessness caused by blocked or narrowed arteries. Sometimes a PCI can be used to treat an artery during or soon after a heart attack or to reduce the risk of you having another heart attack.  

Are there any alternatives to a PCI?

For some people it may be possible to have a coronary bypass operation.

Coronary artery disease can be treated using drugs to relieve the symptoms and to help prevent the disease getting worse.

What does the procedure involve?

If appropriate, the cardiologist may offer you a sedative or painkiller.

A PCI usually takes between half an hour and two hours.

A sheath (a short, soft plastic tube used to access your artery) is usually inserted in your femoral artery near your groin.

The cardiologist will pass a catheter along the artery to your heart.

They will pass a small tube with a small inflatable balloon at the end down the catheter and across the narrowed part of the artery. They will then inflate the balloon to widen the artery. In most cases, they will also expand a stent inside the artery to hold it open (see figure 1).

What complications can happen?

Potential complications during or soon after the procedure:

  • Bleeding after the procedure
  • Bruising
  • Haematoma
  • Infection
  • False aneurysm or arteriovenous fistula
  • Kidney damage
  • Allergic reaction
  • Radiation exposure
  • Thrombosis
  • Lost stent
  • Change in heart rhythm
  • Blood leaking into the sac that surrounds the heart
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke

Potential late complications:

  • Stent restenosis
  • Stent thrombosis

How soon will I recover?

You should be able to go home the same day or the day after.

It is important that you do not do any strenuous activity for about a week.

If you have high blood pressure or high cholesterol, you will usually need to continue with most of the drugs you were on before the procedure.

Angioplasty summary

Coronary artery disease can cause pain, shortness of breath and heart attacks. A PCI is usually a safe and effective way to relieve your pain, and may help you to live longer.

Paying for your procedure

Percutaneous coronary intervention costs are covered by most medical insurance policies, but please check with your insurer first. If you are paying for your own treatment the cost of the operation will be explained and confirmed in writing when you book the operation. Ask the hospital for a quote beforehand, and ensure that this includes the surgeon’s fee, the anaesthetist’s fee and the hospital charge for your procedure.

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