Skip to main content

Hallux Valgus (Bunion)

Find out what causes bunions, and how they can be treated

A hallux valgus is the medical term for a deviation in alignment of the big toe. This involves the joint at the base of the big toe developing a sideways angle. It is also known as a bunion.

Common causes for developing a hallux valgus include:

  • Poor ankle & foot alignment (termed biomechanics) such as a flat foot posture
  • Previous ankle, foot or metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint injury
  • Degenerative change due to other conditions such as age-related osteoarthritis or rheumatoid disease
  • Repeated use of poorly-fitting footwear or everyday use of high-heeled footwear
  • There may be a genetic element, and hallux valgus sometimes runs in families

The first symptom of a hallux valgus may be noticing the big toe pointing towards the other toes, resulting in the base of the big toe sticking out. As the hallux valgus worsens, pain may be felt primarily across the top and the inside of the base of the big toe. Often the pain is associated with a stiffness of the joint and there may be swelling or thickening of the skin on the inside of the joint as the skin reacts to being rubbed against footwear. This may become red and inflamed, known as Bursitis.

A hallux valgus can be reliably diagnosed by your doctor or physiotherapist taking a history of your condition and by conducting a physical examination.

The main feature on examination is the characteristic angulation of the big toe MTP joint.

X-rays are not routinely required, but may be requested if symptoms are severe enough that surgery is being considered or to assess the degree of osteoarthritis at the big toe joint.

Non-surgical management

Mild hallux valgus can be managed effectively by non-invasive measures as described below.

Footwear. The most effective measure is wearing the most appropriate footwear and orthotics (insoles).

Hallux valgus splint Splints may be purchased for symptomatic relief.

Exercises Regular exercises to maintain flexibility to the ankle and foot:

[Soleus stretch video] [Gastrocnemius stretch video]

Using painkillers when needed. Over-the-counter analgesia is available through pharmacies

when needed. Paracetamol is most commonly prescribed. Anti-inflammatories are also used eg Ibuprofen, but as there is little or no inflammation involved in osteoarthritis these are best avoided without discussing with your GP. Side effects are even more common than with paracetamol so please ensure to take appropriate medical advice. There is a good booklet on the Arthritis Research UK website with information about the various drug options.

Surgical management

There are several different types of surgery which can be performed to correct a hallux valgus. If needed, the most suitable surgery for your age, activity level and the anatomy of your joint prior to surgery will be considered. The most commonly performed surgeries are a scarf osteotomy or a chevron osteotomy both of which involve a bone cutting procedure and then realigning the deviated big toe to a straight position.

Any surgical option will usually require you to wear a heel weight-bearing shoe or boot for 6-8 weeks and you will need to use crutches, to ensure that the operated area can heal properly. You will not be able to drive during this time. Most people are not able to wear their normal footwear for about 6 months.

Surgery will only be considered in patients who:

  • Have trialed a course of non-surgical management without success
  • Have consistent, disabling pain significantly limiting mobility
  • Have a satisfactory Body Mass Index (BMI) or have made lifestyle changes to lose excess bodyweight

Specialists Offering Hallux valgus (bunion)

Mr Arun Khajuria

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

MBBS, MS Orth, DNB (Diplomate of National Board) Orth, MCh Orth (UK), FEBOT (Fellow European Board in Tr and Orth), FRCS Eng. (Tr and Orth)

BMI The Lancaster Hospital

View profile Book online

Mr Nitin Modi

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

MBBS, MS Orthopaedics FRCS (T&O), MS Orthopaedics, MRCS, FCPS Orthopaedics, Diploma Orthopaedics

BMI St Edmunds Hospital

View profile Book online

Mr Ashok Marudanayagam

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

MBBS, Dip Ortho, DNB (Ortho), FRCS (Glasg), FRCS (Tr & Orth)

BMI The Lincoln Hospital

View profile Book online

Mr Garth Allardice

Consultant Orthopaedic & Trauma Surgeon

MBBCh(WITS), FCS(SA), Orthopaedics

BMI Bishops Wood Hospital 2 more BMI The Clementine Churchill Hospital BMI Syon Clinic

View profile Book online

Mr Sunil Dhar

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon


BMI The Park Hospital

View profile Book online

Mr Laurence James

Consultant Trauma & Orthopaedic Surgeon

BSc (hons), MBBS, MRCS (Eng), FRCS (Tr & Orth)

BMI The Blackheath Hospital 2 more BMI Chelsfield Park Hospital BMI The Sloane Hospital

View profile Book online

View all

Ways to pay

credit card

Pay for yourself

Pay for yourself with our fixed price packages. This includes your pre-assessment, treatment, follow-ups and 6 months' aftercare

Find out more


Pay with health insurance

We are widely recognised by health insurers. Ask your insurer about your cover and for an insurer pre-authorisation code

Find out more

direct debit

Spread the cost

Pay for yourself with the BMI card and spread the cost over 12 months, interest-free (terms and conditions apply)

Find out more

General Enquiries