Clinical neuropsychology is a field with historical origins in both psychology and neurology.
The primary activity of neuropsychologists is assessment of brain functioning through structured and systematic behavioural observation.
Neuropsychological tests are designed to examine a variety of cognitive abilities, including speed of information processing, attention, memory, language, and executive functions, which are necessary for goal-directed behaviour. By testing a range of cognitive abilities and examining patterns of performance in different cognitive areas, neuropsychologists can make inferences about underlying brain function.
Neuropsychological testing is an important component of the assessment and treatment of traumatic brain injury, dementia , neurological conditions, and psychiatric disorders.
Neuropsychological testing is also an important tool for examining the effects of toxic substances and medical conditions on brain functioning.